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Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual federal states.
Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years.
Primary education usually lasts for four to six years. A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree.
It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school. Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment.
However, there are a number of exceptions, depending on the state, the college and the subject. Tuition free academic education is open to international students and is increasingly common.
Germany has a long tradition of higher education. The established universities in Germany include some of the oldest in the world , with Heidelberg University established in being the oldest.
In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence: Germany's system of hospices, called spitals , dates from medieval times, and today, Germany has the world's oldest universal health care system, dating from Bismarck's social legislation of the s,  Since the s, reforms and provisions have ensured a balanced health care system.
Currently the population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract.
A study shows Germany has the highest number of overweight people in Europe. Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular.
Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker "the land of poets and thinkers" ,  because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.
Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs , which include Advent wreaths , Christmas pageants , Christmas trees , Stollen cakes, and other practices.
In the 21st century Berlin has emerged as a major international creative centre. German classical music includes works by some of the world's most well-known composers.
Dieterich Buxtehude composed oratorios for organ, which influenced the later work of Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Friedrich Händel ; these men were influential composers of the Baroque period.
During his tenure as violinist and teacher at the Salzburg cathedral, Augsburg-born composer Leopold Mozart mentored one of the most noted musicians of all time: Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras.
Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms composed in the Romantic idiom. Richard Wagner was known for his operas. Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras.
Karlheinz Stockhausen and Hans Zimmer are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries. Germany is the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world.
German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre. Paul van Dyk , Paul Kalkbrenner , and Scooter.
German painters have influenced western art. The New Objectivity arose as a counter-style to it during the Weimar Republic.
Other notable artists who work with traditional media or figurative imagery include Martin Kippenberger , Gerhard Richter , Sigmar Polke , and Neo Rauch.
Major art exhibitions and festivals in Germany are the documenta , the Berlin Biennale , transmediale and Art Cologne. Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles , which were precursors of Romanesque.
Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved e.
Weser Renaissance and Dresden Baroque. The Wessobrunner School exerted a decisive influence on, and at times even dominated, the art of stucco in southern Germany in the 18th century.
The Upper Swabian Baroque Route offers a baroque-themed tourist route that highlights the contributions of such artists and craftsmen as the sculptor and plasterer Johann Michael Feuchtmayer , one of the foremost members of the Feuchtmayer family and the brothers Johann Baptist Zimmermann and Dominikus Zimmermann.
When industrialisation spread across Europe, Classicism and a distinctive style of historism developed in Germany, sometimes referred to as Gründerzeit style , due to the economical boom years at the end of the 19th century.
Notable sub-styles that evolved since the 18th century are the German spa and seaside resort architecture. German artists, writers and gallerists like Siegfried Bing , Georg Hirth and Bruno Möhring also contributed to the development of Art Nouveau at the turn of the 20th century, known as Jugendstil in German.
Expressionist architecture developed in the s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles, with e. Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: Consequently, Germany is often considered the cradle of modern architecture and design.
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century. German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.
The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level.
German philosophy is historically significant: Gottfried Leibniz 's contributions to rationalism ; the enlightenment philosophy by Immanuel Kant ; the establishment of classical German idealism by Johann Gottlieb Fichte , Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling ; Arthur Schopenhauer 's composition of metaphysical pessimism; the formulation of communist theory by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels ; Friedrich Nietzsche 's development of perspectivism ; Gottlob Frege 's contributions to the dawn of analytic philosophy ; Martin Heidegger 's works on Being; Oswald Spengler 's historical philosophy; the development of the Frankfurt School by Max Horkheimer , Theodor Adorno , Herbert Marcuse and Jürgen Habermas have been particularly influential.
Many of Europe's best-selling newspapers and magazines are produced in Germany. The German video gaming market is one of the largest in the world.
German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in Director Fritz Lang 's Metropolis is referred to as the first major science-fiction film.
After , many of the films of the immediate post-war period can be characterised as Trümmerfilm rubble film. The defining film genre in West Germany of the s was arguably the Heimatfilm "homeland film" ; these films depicted the beauty of the land and the moral integrity of the people living in it.
One of the most successful German movie series of the s included the sex reports called Schulmädchen-Report Schoolgirl Report.
Various Germans won an "Oscar" award for their performances in other films. The Berlin International Film Festival , known as "Berlinale", awarding the " Golden Bear " and held annually since , is one of the world's leading film festivals.
German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities e. International varieties such as pizza , sushi , Chinese food , Greek food , Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular.
Bread is a significant part of German cuisine and German bakeries produce about main types of bread and 1, different types of pastries and rolls Brötchen.
German cheeses account for about a third of all cheese produced in Europe. Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1, varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts.
Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine regions ,  the national alcoholic drink is beer.
The Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars , the highest designation, while 38 more received two stars and one star.
Twenty-seven million Germans are members of a sports club and an additional twelve million pursue sports individually.
With more than 6. Other popular spectator sports include winter sports , boxing , basketball , handball , volleyball , ice hockey , tennis , horse riding and golf.
Water sports like sailing , rowing , and swimming are popular in Germany as well. Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world.
Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times as of [update].
The driver Michael Schumacher has set many motor sport records during his career, having won seven Formula One World Drivers' Championships , more than any other.
He is one of the highest paid sportsmen in history. Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games , ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count when combining East and West German medals.
Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.
German designers became early leaders of modern product design , with the Bauhaus designers like Mies van der Rohe , and Dieter Rams of Braun being essential pioneers.
Germany is a leading country in the fashion industry. The German textile industry consisted of about 1, companies with more than , employees in , which generated a revenue of 28 billion Euro.
Almost 44 per cent of the products are exported. Munich, Hamburg, Cologne and Düsseldorf are also important design, production and trade hubs of the domestic fashion industry, among smaller towns.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Germany disambiguation and Deutschland disambiguation.
For the country from to , see West Germany. Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe.
Show map of Europe. Germania , Migration Period , and Frankish Realm. East Francia and Holy Roman Empire. Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany.
History of Germany — German reunification and History of Germany since List of cities and towns in Germany and List of cities in Germany by population.
Largest cities or towns in Germany Statistical offices in Germany 31 December Foreign relations of Germany. Transport in Germany and Rail transport in Germany.
Science and technology in Germany. Demographics of Germany and Germans. Baroque Dresden Frauenkirche Evangelical.
Gothic Cologne Cathedral Roman Catholic. German language and Languages of Germany. Friedrich , Wanderer above the Sea of Fog Franz Marc , Roe Deer in the Forest German literature and German philosophy.
Germany portal Europe portal. Forbundsrepublikken Tyskland Low German: Bundesrepubliek Düütschland Upper Sorbian: Federalni Republika Jermaniya North Frisian: Since , the third verse alone has been the national anthem.
There were also unions in other smaller German states happening independent of each other. The tax rate is eight percent of income tax and certain other taxes in Bavaria and nine percent in other states; in most cases the tax is collected by the state and in other cases data on church members' income is shared.
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Archived from the original on 11 August Retrieved 19 July Do the Germans ever refer to themselves as from Germany or just simply the "Deutschland"?
From my experience living in Germany and talking to many Germans over many years, the choice of words depends on the language being spoken, the context including who the conversational partner is , and mental disposition of the speaker.
If being humorous, they might use some other term in German or another language depending on setting and circumstances e.
Speakers of most Germanic languages, of which German is only one, call it by a name from the Old German root diutisc , with the exception of English, which, like Italian, Romanian.
Greek, Irish and Scots Gaelic, uses a word derived from Germani , the name of a tribe living around and east of the Rhine. Speakers of most Romance languages except for Italian and Romanian as well as Welsh, use names derived from the name of a tribe called the Alemanni , a confederation of German tribes, as do Arabic and Turkish, probably due to the influence of French.
It is an ethnic marker for a group of people. In IE languages maybe all languages? In fact it is so widely used in a variety of contexts that independently multiple linguistic communities have had to take up the use of a second term to indicate actual blood relations.
So, if the original term for brother whatever it is starts to be used to refer to good friends, colleagues, fellow members in educational associations and even strangers as a way of showing openness and lack of social distance, then sometimes a whole other word gains currency to describe males born to the same parents both or either.
The same thing occurred in Greek. You know that Philadelphia means ' city of brotherly love'. This means 'delphos' was the male who came from the same mother.
The Oracle at Delphi belonged to Apollo the twin brother of Artemis and even the name of the animal the dolphin comes from this word as the 'womb-fish'.
Sources give partly differing explanations and descriptions. I like these ones the most. That was from the times of Ceasar when Germans looked like a bunch of identical barbarians who were attacking the Roman Empire.
Alemanni were a specific Germanic tribe well, a collection of several tribes living around Rhine in the 3rd century. While Alemania boils down to Latin, Deutsch which is etymologically the same root as Dutch, and they only diverged in meaning relatively recently, to denote two countries also comes from an old word for the people.
But Germany, like the world, is bigger than that. Spanish Alemania and French Allemagne derive from the Latin Alemanni , which was the Roman name for the southern confederation of Germanic tribes living off their Rhenish border.
The Alemanni never went away, but eventually blended into the political structures of what are now Alsace, Baden-Wurttemburg state, and northern Switzerland.
The dialects of German spoken in these areas are a distinct bunch from the others. Germany comes from the Latin Germania , which was the name the Romans gave to the entire region in Central Europe where these tribes lived.
The name is an extension of the name Germani , who were a tribe living around modern Northeastern France, about whom little is now known.
It is likely that the name for this tribe was extended to be the name for the region as a whole. But who made that extension? The Romans likely got the name itself from the Gauls.
Basically, there are a lot of different names for Germany and Germans. But they all come from ways of describing some or all of the people living there many many centuries ago.
The names survived, and sometimes shifted in meaning. Germany as a country did not start until , before that it was made up of different countries, provinces and before that, tribes - Bavaria, Prussia, Saxony, etc.
When the country came about, different languages chose names that were associated with one of the original tribes, and just happened to pick differently.
So, "Germany" came from the Latin "Germania", "Allemagne" from the Alemanni tribe, and "Deutschland" from the old High German word "diutisc" meaning "of the people".
Well, apart from the fact that Deutsch- isn't the way we would spell the first element of the word anyway, we already have another nation which we gave the English root word to, which is cognate with the German word Deutsch.
It's the Dutch, but they are from the Netherlands. Also modern Germany is a relatively modern state. Our word for the Dutch and its use to denote people from the Netherlands existed long before the country Germans call Deutschland today.
Originally in the 14th century, in English the word Dutch was used to refer to Germans in general, by the 's it was being applied to "Hollanders".
The state called Deutschland didn't appear until the early 19th century. Interestingly the English word Dutch didn't actually come from English, but from the Middle Dutch word Duutsch - borrowed in the 14th century.
By the time Germany became Deutschland, the British Empire was already in full flow. I imagine the reason Germany from the Latin root was chosen as the name of the country, was because the British equated their own empire with the Roman Empire, and English already had lots of words borrowed from Latin.
Otherwise, perhaps we would have called it Theodishland instead. Just how many names do other nations have in the many languages of Earthlings?
Has anyone compiled a database of the names excluding profanity of course by which the United States of America is known? What would be the effect if this practice, using alternate names in an official manner, were to be extended to people?
But this is my first attempt at participating in this intriguing forum. Germany was not a country until Until then it consisted of a number of states and two centuries earlier that ran into three figures.
What they shared was the German language which Martin Luther standardised in the 16th century so that everyone could understand his translation of the Bible.
The former German states corresponded to the German tribes — Saxons, Prussians, Bavarians, Allemani in the southwest, Helvetii in Switzerland and more — and so the surrounding nations tended to take the name from the neighbouring tribe.
Italian has tedesco for the adjective, but Germania for the country. It is a first cousin, so the closest kind aside from double-cousins. Germane means closely related.
The Germans were, from the Roman perspective, a closely related collection of tribes. This page may be out of date. Save your draft before refreshing this page.
Why is "Deutschland" called "Germany" in English? What do Germans call themselves? Quora User , Glad to possess a German passport. Learn More at englishninjas.
You dismissed this ad. The feedback you provide will help us show you more relevant content in the future. Why were Germans called Kraut? What do the English call English muffins?
Why is the English pound called Sterling? Why is English called English? Just a few additions to what has already been said.
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Be among the first to join. Learn More at weco. Why isn't Germany in the English language called Deutschland? There is no common root in the names Germany and Deutschland.
Sharon's answer is brilliant. Maybe a bit off-topic, but the other answers leave little to add for me. If German wanted to, it could do the following: But for some reason, Kalifornien prevails…!
Spain and Poland also have their own names for Germany. Language can be a crazy thing, can't it? Quora User , interested in linguistics a bit. What the actual reason is why in Britain the one word is used and in Germany the other, I can only guess: Anyway, here is the original question: Answered Dec 20, I like these ones the most "Deutschland", the land where "Deutsche" live as a name means simplified "the land, belonging to the people".
It was used since the late Carolingian period as the name of the non-romanized population of the Frankish kingdom. Allemagne French for Germany: Some additional, helpful information to understand the Germans.
Germania is a Roman word coining, used to summarize the myriad of tribes from inner Asia confronting the Roman empire. Later, Hitler wanted to transform Berlin into a new, the world dominating monstrous capital which he named "Germania".
Charlemagne's son, Louis the Pious couldn't bind the Carolingian Empire which was divided among his sons into three parts. The division of the Middle part originated two major kingdoms: The "Francs" in the West were seen as the courageous, wild people, often in connection with "free".
The "Deutsche" in the East were the commoners, simple people. Germany as we know it today, was founded as an empire in Therefore Germany is about years younger than the United States founded They were most important for Romans, too.
Quora User , lived in Germany. Quora User , Native English speaker. Answered Oct 21, What is the history of the use of the term "Deutschland"?
The adjective "diutisc" in Old High German meant "popular", "related to ordinary people", and denoted the Germanic language spoken in the eastern part of the Frankish empire - as opposed to the Romance pre-French named "walhisc", originally meaning "Celtic", compare "Welsh" that was spoken in the western part.
Related Questions What's this thing called in English? Why is Nijntje called Miffy in English? Why don't we call countries the same names they call themselves?
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